A cleanroom, or clean room, serves a vital role in scientific research and manufacturing environments. These spaces maintain extremely low levels of particulates, such as vaporized particles, airborne organisms, and dust. The classification of a cleanroom determines its cleanliness by measuring the number of particles per cubic meter of air. An ISO 9 environment, equivalent to outdoor air in a normal urban area, contains thirty-five (35) million particles, all 5 μm (micrometers, approximately 0.005 mm) or larger. By contrast, an ISO 1 environment allows twelve particles per cubic meter, all sized 3 μm (0.003 mm) or less.

The American physicist Willis Whitfield developed the concept of the modern cleanroom in 1960. At the time, he worked at Sandia National Laboratories.

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